Chemistry

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(New page: This will be where stuff about chemistry goes. Feel free to edit as you like; I'm starting with lists of reagents and glassware that I will be bringing, and will add photos later today. =...)
 
 
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This will be where stuff about chemistry goes. Feel free to edit as you like; I'm starting with lists of reagents and glassware that I will be bringing, and will add photos later today.
+
{{Template:OutOfDate}}
 +
 
 +
This will be where stuff about chemistry goes. Feel free to edit as you like; I'm starting with lists of reagents and glassware that I will be bringing, and will add photos as time goes on.
 +
 
 +
All images are from Wikipedia and used under the [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html GFDL].
  
 
==Glassware==
 
==Glassware==
Line 5: Line 9:
 
All items are 24/40 standard taper unless otherwise specified. Some items are not glassware, but are used in reaction setups.
 
All items are 24/40 standard taper unless otherwise specified. Some items are not glassware, but are used in reaction setups.
  
* Liebig condenser, 200mm
+
Prices are from Sigma-Aldrich's catalogue. In reality these can be had much more cheaply on ebay.
* Allihn condenser, 200mm
+
 
* 3-neck 500mL round-bottom flask
+
[[Image:LiebigCondenser.jpg|right|thumb|Liebig condenser.]]
* 500mL round-bottom flask
+
[[Image:Round-bottom flasks (stacked).PNG|right|thumb|One-neck and three-neck round-bottom flasks.]]
* 250mL round-bottom flask
+
[[Image:Separatory funnel.jpg|right|thumb|A separating funnel, also known as an addition funnel or a dropping funnel. This one contains ether (on top) and water (on bottom), which are immiscible liquids.]]
* 100mL round-bottom flask
+
[[Image:Erlenmeyer flask.jpg|right|thumb|A 100mL Erlenmeyer flask.]]
* 50mL round-bottom flask
+
[[Image:One arm Erlenmeyer.PNG|right|thumb|A one-arm Erlenmeyer flask, also known as a Buchner flask. The "arm" is ridged so that a hose will stay on.]]
 +
[[Image:Buchner funnel.jpeg|right|thumb|A Buchner funnel, set up for filtration on a one-arm Erlenmeyer. The hose goes out to a vacuum pump.]]
 +
[[Image:Graduated cylinder.jpg|right|thumb|A 100mL graduated cylinder. The plastic "foot" on the bottom is removable.]]
 +
* Liebig condenser, 200mm ($55.10)
 +
* Allihn condenser, 200mm ($172.40)
 +
* 3-neck 500mL round-bottom flask ($94.20)
 +
* 500mL round-bottom flask ($30.70)
 +
* 250mL round-bottom flask ($27.00)
 +
* 100mL round-bottom flask ($23.50)
 +
* 50mL round-bottom flask ($22.90)
 
* 2x50mL round-bottom flask with distiller arm (not standard taper)
 
* 2x50mL round-bottom flask with distiller arm (not standard taper)
* Addition funnel, 125mL
+
* Addition funnel, 125mL ($113.40)
* Separating funnel, 100mL (not standard taper; use a 1-hole stopper for an adapter)
+
* Separating funnel, 100mL (not standard taper; use a 1-hole stopper for an adapter) (~$20 from American Science and Surplus)
* Stillhead adapter
+
* Separating funnel, 125mL
* Vacuum adapter
+
* Stillhead adapter ($68.10)
* Claisen adapter
+
* Vacuum adapter ($47.10)
 +
* Claisen adapter ($56.70)
 
* 0-360 degree thermometer
 
* 0-360 degree thermometer
 
* 500mL beaker
 
* 500mL beaker
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* 2x200mL beakers
 
* 2x200mL beakers
 
* 40mL beaker
 
* 40mL beaker
* 500mL Erlenmeyer flask with vacuum adapter (not standard taper)
+
* 500mL one-arm Erlenmeyer flask (not standard taper)
 +
* 2L one-arm Erlenmeyer flask (not standard taper)
 
* Buchner funnel
 
* Buchner funnel
 
* 100mL graduated cylinder
 
* 100mL graduated cylinder
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* 10mL burette
 
* 10mL burette
 
* Evaporating dish
 
* Evaporating dish
* Aquarium pump with hoses (attaches to condenser for cooling it down)
+
* Aquarium pump with hoses (attaches to condenser for cooling it down) (~$25 at any aquarium store)
 
* Test tubes, various sizes, lots of them
 
* Test tubes, various sizes, lots of them
 +
* 2 ring stands with clamps
 +
* Hose clamps
 +
* Mortar and pestle
 +
* Fritted funnel
 +
* Repipet
 +
* Millipore 1225 sampling manifold
 +
* 2L reagent bottle with hose barb and hose
 +
* Watch glasses
  
 
==Reagents==
 
==Reagents==
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* 1 gallon hydrochloric acid, 12M
 
* 1 gallon hydrochloric acid, 12M
 
* ~1lb potassium hydroxide
 
* ~1lb potassium hydroxide
 +
* Calcium chloride, anhydrous (drying agent)
 +
* Magnesium sulfate, anhydrous (drying agent)
  
 
==Things that are broken but could be fixed==
 
==Things that are broken but could be fixed==
  
 
* A 500mL round-bottom longneck distillation flask with the distiller arm broken off. If someone has an acetylene torch, this could be repaired by fusing a glass tube onto it, or the hole could be sealed up and the flask used for a reflux reaction flask.
 
* A 500mL round-bottom longneck distillation flask with the distiller arm broken off. If someone has an acetylene torch, this could be repaired by fusing a glass tube onto it, or the hole could be sealed up and the flask used for a reflux reaction flask.
 +
* A Liebig condenser, not standard taper, with part of the stillhead end in several pieces. Again, fixable with a hot enough torch.
 +
* A vacuum aspirator with a bunch of pipe-fitting adapters. It works, but currently the adapters are on there really tight and I can't get them off. If someone has a plumber's wrench and a bench vise, this is easy to fix.
 +
 +
==Workshops we could do==
 +
 +
* Distillation and drying. 99% ethanol is really expensive, but we can make it cheaply with everclear (or cheap vodka) and a little bit of work.
 +
* Liquid-liquid extraction and organic separation -- polar vs. non-polar solvents, how to use them
 +
* Column chromatography
 +
* Steam extraction from organic materials -- make your own essential oils and hydrosols
 +
* Acid/base extraction
 +
* Build a rotary evaporator
 +
* How to set up a reaction under reflux conditions
 +
* Fractional distillation
 +
* Build a fume hood
 +
 +
==Things we should have on hand==
 +
 +
There are many reagents which we should have in stock and which can be acquired easily from hardware stores or photography supply stores. Here are some, please add more:
 +
 +
* Acetone (hardware store)
 +
* Xylene (hardware store)
 +
* Toluene (hardware store, though do they sell it in California?)
 +
* 99% isopropyl alcohol (pharmacy)
 +
* Glacial acetic acid (photography supply)
 +
* Dichloromethane (hardware store)
 +
* Denatured alcohol (hardware store)
 +
* Naphtha (hardware store)
 +
* 99% ethanol (can be purchased at places like The Science Shop in San Jose, but is very expensive; cheaper to make our own)
 +
* Silica gel (finer ground than the stuff that comes in packets, but we can grind it up in a mortar)
 +
* Calcium chloride (hardware store, "Damp-Rid")
 +
* Magnesium sulfate, anhydrous (pharmacy; buy Epsom salts and bake them in an oven to dehydrate, then put in a bag and crush into little chunks)
 +
* Astroglide, glycerin/paraben-free (for greasing glass joints)
 +
* Nitric acid, 70% (electronics supply -- used for etching PCBs)

Latest revision as of 15:30, 7 February 2011

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This article seems to be really old or very much out of date, and may contain wrong info.

Wiki-tip: You can check its history to see when it was last edited.

This will be where stuff about chemistry goes. Feel free to edit as you like; I'm starting with lists of reagents and glassware that I will be bringing, and will add photos as time goes on.

All images are from Wikipedia and used under the GFDL.

Contents

[edit] Glassware

All items are 24/40 standard taper unless otherwise specified. Some items are not glassware, but are used in reaction setups.

Prices are from Sigma-Aldrich's catalogue. In reality these can be had much more cheaply on ebay.

Liebig condenser.
One-neck and three-neck round-bottom flasks.
A separating funnel, also known as an addition funnel or a dropping funnel. This one contains ether (on top) and water (on bottom), which are immiscible liquids.
A 100mL Erlenmeyer flask.
A one-arm Erlenmeyer flask, also known as a Buchner flask. The "arm" is ridged so that a hose will stay on.
A Buchner funnel, set up for filtration on a one-arm Erlenmeyer. The hose goes out to a vacuum pump.
A 100mL graduated cylinder. The plastic "foot" on the bottom is removable.
  • Liebig condenser, 200mm ($55.10)
  • Allihn condenser, 200mm ($172.40)
  • 3-neck 500mL round-bottom flask ($94.20)
  • 500mL round-bottom flask ($30.70)
  • 250mL round-bottom flask ($27.00)
  • 100mL round-bottom flask ($23.50)
  • 50mL round-bottom flask ($22.90)
  • 2x50mL round-bottom flask with distiller arm (not standard taper)
  • Addition funnel, 125mL ($113.40)
  • Separating funnel, 100mL (not standard taper; use a 1-hole stopper for an adapter) (~$20 from American Science and Surplus)
  • Separating funnel, 125mL
  • Stillhead adapter ($68.10)
  • Vacuum adapter ($47.10)
  • Claisen adapter ($56.70)
  • 0-360 degree thermometer
  • 500mL beaker
  • 250mL beaker
  • 2x200mL beakers
  • 40mL beaker
  • 500mL one-arm Erlenmeyer flask (not standard taper)
  • 2L one-arm Erlenmeyer flask (not standard taper)
  • Buchner funnel
  • 100mL graduated cylinder
  • 10mL graduated cylinder
  • 10mL burette
  • Evaporating dish
  • Aquarium pump with hoses (attaches to condenser for cooling it down) (~$25 at any aquarium store)
  • Test tubes, various sizes, lots of them
  • 2 ring stands with clamps
  • Hose clamps
  • Mortar and pestle
  • Fritted funnel
  • Repipet
  • Millipore 1225 sampling manifold
  • 2L reagent bottle with hose barb and hose
  • Watch glasses

[edit] Reagents

  • 1 gallon methanol
  • 1 gallon phosphoric acid
  • 1 gallon hydrochloric acid, 12M
  • ~1lb potassium hydroxide
  • Calcium chloride, anhydrous (drying agent)
  • Magnesium sulfate, anhydrous (drying agent)

[edit] Things that are broken but could be fixed

  • A 500mL round-bottom longneck distillation flask with the distiller arm broken off. If someone has an acetylene torch, this could be repaired by fusing a glass tube onto it, or the hole could be sealed up and the flask used for a reflux reaction flask.
  • A Liebig condenser, not standard taper, with part of the stillhead end in several pieces. Again, fixable with a hot enough torch.
  • A vacuum aspirator with a bunch of pipe-fitting adapters. It works, but currently the adapters are on there really tight and I can't get them off. If someone has a plumber's wrench and a bench vise, this is easy to fix.

[edit] Workshops we could do

  • Distillation and drying. 99% ethanol is really expensive, but we can make it cheaply with everclear (or cheap vodka) and a little bit of work.
  • Liquid-liquid extraction and organic separation -- polar vs. non-polar solvents, how to use them
  • Column chromatography
  • Steam extraction from organic materials -- make your own essential oils and hydrosols
  • Acid/base extraction
  • Build a rotary evaporator
  • How to set up a reaction under reflux conditions
  • Fractional distillation
  • Build a fume hood

[edit] Things we should have on hand

There are many reagents which we should have in stock and which can be acquired easily from hardware stores or photography supply stores. Here are some, please add more:

  • Acetone (hardware store)
  • Xylene (hardware store)
  • Toluene (hardware store, though do they sell it in California?)
  • 99% isopropyl alcohol (pharmacy)
  • Glacial acetic acid (photography supply)
  • Dichloromethane (hardware store)
  • Denatured alcohol (hardware store)
  • Naphtha (hardware store)
  • 99% ethanol (can be purchased at places like The Science Shop in San Jose, but is very expensive; cheaper to make our own)
  • Silica gel (finer ground than the stuff that comes in packets, but we can grind it up in a mortar)
  • Calcium chloride (hardware store, "Damp-Rid")
  • Magnesium sulfate, anhydrous (pharmacy; buy Epsom salts and bake them in an oven to dehydrate, then put in a bag and crush into little chunks)
  • Astroglide, glycerin/paraben-free (for greasing glass joints)
  • Nitric acid, 70% (electronics supply -- used for etching PCBs)
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