Chemistry

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This will be where stuff about chemistry goes. Feel free to edit as you like; I'm starting with lists of reagents and glassware that I will be bringing, and will add photos as time goes on.

All images are from Wikipedia and used under the GFDL.

Glassware[edit]

All items are 24/40 standard taper unless otherwise specified. Some items are not glassware, but are used in reaction setups.

Prices are from Sigma-Aldrich's catalogue. In reality these can be had much more cheaply on ebay.

Liebig condenser.
One-neck and three-neck round-bottom flasks.
A separating funnel, also known as an addition funnel or a dropping funnel. This one contains ether (on top) and water (on bottom), which are immiscible liquids.
A 100mL Erlenmeyer flask.
A one-arm Erlenmeyer flask, also known as a Buchner flask. The "arm" is ridged so that a hose will stay on.
A Buchner funnel, set up for filtration on a one-arm Erlenmeyer. The hose goes out to a vacuum pump.
A 100mL graduated cylinder. The plastic "foot" on the bottom is removable.
  • Liebig condenser, 200mm ($55.10)
  • Allihn condenser, 200mm ($172.40)
  • 3-neck 500mL round-bottom flask ($94.20)
  • 500mL round-bottom flask ($30.70)
  • 250mL round-bottom flask ($27.00)
  • 100mL round-bottom flask ($23.50)
  • 50mL round-bottom flask ($22.90)
  • 2x50mL round-bottom flask with distiller arm (not standard taper)
  • Addition funnel, 125mL ($113.40)
  • Separating funnel, 100mL (not standard taper; use a 1-hole stopper for an adapter) (~$20 from American Science and Surplus)
  • Separating funnel, 125mL
  • Stillhead adapter ($68.10)
  • Vacuum adapter ($47.10)
  • Claisen adapter ($56.70)
  • 0-360 degree thermometer
  • 500mL beaker
  • 250mL beaker
  • 2x200mL beakers
  • 40mL beaker
  • 500mL one-arm Erlenmeyer flask (not standard taper)
  • 2L one-arm Erlenmeyer flask (not standard taper)
  • Buchner funnel
  • 100mL graduated cylinder
  • 10mL graduated cylinder
  • 10mL burette
  • Evaporating dish
  • Aquarium pump with hoses (attaches to condenser for cooling it down) (~$25 at any aquarium store)
  • Test tubes, various sizes, lots of them
  • 2 ring stands with clamps
  • Hose clamps
  • Mortar and pestle
  • Fritted funnel
  • Repipet
  • Millipore 1225 sampling manifold
  • 2L reagent bottle with hose barb and hose
  • Watch glasses

Reagents[edit]

  • 1 gallon methanol
  • 1 gallon phosphoric acid
  • 1 gallon hydrochloric acid, 12M
  • ~1lb potassium hydroxide
  • Calcium chloride, anhydrous (drying agent)
  • Magnesium sulfate, anhydrous (drying agent)

Things that are broken but could be fixed[edit]

  • A 500mL round-bottom longneck distillation flask with the distiller arm broken off. If someone has an acetylene torch, this could be repaired by fusing a glass tube onto it, or the hole could be sealed up and the flask used for a reflux reaction flask.
  • A Liebig condenser, not standard taper, with part of the stillhead end in several pieces. Again, fixable with a hot enough torch.
  • A vacuum aspirator with a bunch of pipe-fitting adapters. It works, but currently the adapters are on there really tight and I can't get them off. If someone has a plumber's wrench and a bench vise, this is easy to fix.

Workshops we could do[edit]

  • Distillation and drying. 99% ethanol is really expensive, but we can make it cheaply with everclear (or cheap vodka) and a little bit of work.
  • Liquid-liquid extraction and organic separation -- polar vs. non-polar solvents, how to use them
  • Column chromatography
  • Steam extraction from organic materials -- make your own essential oils and hydrosols
  • Acid/base extraction
  • Build a rotary evaporator
  • How to set up a reaction under reflux conditions
  • Fractional distillation
  • Build a fume hood

Things we should have on hand[edit]

There are many reagents which we should have in stock and which can be acquired easily from hardware stores or photography supply stores. Here are some, please add more:

  • Acetone (hardware store)
  • Xylene (hardware store)
  • Toluene (hardware store, though do they sell it in California?)
  • 99% isopropyl alcohol (pharmacy)
  • Glacial acetic acid (photography supply)
  • Dichloromethane (hardware store)
  • Denatured alcohol (hardware store)
  • Naphtha (hardware store)
  • 99% ethanol (can be purchased at places like The Science Shop in San Jose, but is very expensive; cheaper to make our own)
  • Silica gel (finer ground than the stuff that comes in packets, but we can grind it up in a mortar)
  • Calcium chloride (hardware store, "Damp-Rid")
  • Magnesium sulfate, anhydrous (pharmacy; buy Epsom salts and bake them in an oven to dehydrate, then put in a bag and crush into little chunks)
  • Astroglide, glycerin/paraben-free (for greasing glass joints)
  • Nitric acid, 70% (electronics supply -- used for etching PCBs)